A Brochure on the Rothes Colliery forms part of Kenny Scott's collection of mining memorabilia. The contents of that Brochure have been reproduced for your interest.





A New Major Sinking to
Develop the Deep Seams
Lying North of Kirkcaldy

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Geological Notes-Coal Reserves

Output and Method of Working


Administration and Baths Buildings

Heating Plant


Car Hall

Electrical Sub-Station and Fanhouse

Coal Preparation Plant

Sidings and Workshops


Winders and cages

Rope Changing Winch

Control Cabin

Onsetting Equipment

Mine Car Circuit

Tipplers, Feeders and Shuttle Conveyors






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The new colliery at Rothes was planned in the first instance by The Fife Coal Company Limited, and is the last major mining development in Scotland to have been started under private enterprise. The first sod was cut by the late Mr. Augustus Carlow, chairman of the company, on 21st December, 1946.

Rothes forms a vital link in the systematic development of the valuable reserves of the Fife Coalfield, and will work a deep field of coal lying to the north of Kirkcaldy. In 1936 the ground was reserved for the layout of the new colliery: a suitable site convenient for rail and road connection was selected near the village of Thornton.

The Second World War intervened and it was not until 1945 that work could be resumed. Shaft sinking proper began in 1947 under the direction of the Scottish Division of the National Coal Board.

The Scheme

The colliery is planned to work the extensive reserves in the Limestone Coal Group of the Carboniferous Series over an area of 10 square miles. An exhaustive series of boring tests to prove the coals, supplemented by the evidence obtained from earlier mining operations in the vicinity, has confirmed the existence of nine seams, three being over 3½ ft. in thickness.

The position of the seams, thickness and class of coal are shown in the following table:

Name of Seam Average thickness (ins.) Average depth from surface (ft.) Class of Coal
Blairhall Smithy (Upper) 42 2170 Industrial
Blairhall Smithy (Lower) 38 2180 Industrial
Little Splint 40 2240 Domestic and Industrial
Seven Feet 40 2290 Domestic and Industrial
Main Coal 38 2360 Industrial
Lochgelly Splint 45 2375 Domestic
Lochgelly Parrot 22 2400 Domestic
Five Feet 63 2590 Domestic
Dunfermline Splint 21 2610 Industrial

The average dip of the strata in the area varies from 1 in 3 to 1 in 8 and the seams extend from the outcrop to a depth of approximately 500 fathoms. The workable coal, estimated to be approximately 120,475,000 tons, is ample for a colliery designed to produce 500 tons her hour, or 5,000 tons of saleable coal per day in two shifts.

The field is ideally suited to the horizon system of mining. It has been decided to sink both shafts (each 24 ft. in diameter) to a depth of approximately 3,000 ft., and to work the coal on four main horizons, this arrangement being adjudged the most economical having regard to the position and depth of the seams.

Surface Features

The Administration Building and the Baths Building are to be two storey and connected by a "covered way." The former building incorporates a commodious Pay Hall on the ground floor and above this on the second floor the Time Keeping Office is positioned to ensure a free passage for men going to and returning from their work.

Excellent canteen facilities for the service of full meals will be provided convenient to the colliery entrance and car park. A Medical Centre including nursing service will be located in the Baths building. The Lamp Room has been arranged on the route between the Baths and Shafts and provision has been made on the "flow line" for men to receive light stores brought by an electric hoist from the stores building on the ground floor level.

Heating Plant

A central heating plant will be situated near the Pithead Baths to provide the colliery heating requirements.

Two "Penman" high-velocity self-contained Economic boilers capable of a duty of 8 million B.T.U.s per hour will be installed and high pressure hot water mains will run from the boiler house to the various buildings which will be heated by radiators, radiant heat panels and unit heaters, having regard to local requirements.

Combined with the boiler house building, accommodation will be provided for a National Coal Board Headquarters' project for a closed cycle gas turbo alternator arranged for coal firing. This unit will be capable of giving an auxiliary electrical supply of 2.5 M.V.A. at 6,600 volts.

A chimney has been designed to meet the requirements of both units a water cooling tower will be included for the gas turbine.

Winder Towers

Winding at both shafts at this colliery is to be done by the Koepe system with winders housed in towers, each approximately 190 ft. high, placed directly above the shafts. Owing to the proximity of the shafts to the foundations of towers, the necessary excavation work had to be carried out simultaneously. The tower foundations extend to the rockhead, and are designed to carry a total of approximately 11,000 tons per tower, at a bearing pressure of 7.61 tons per sq. ft.

The tower structures are of reinforced concrete, with metal frame windows and louvres for ventilation purposes. Provision has been made to accommodate the sinking head frames, which are fitted with a protection arrangement to allow tower construction to proceed during shaft sinking. The temporary head frames will he replaced by internal steel towers, which will incorporate corner guides to steady the four cages when at banking level.

Administrative Block and Towers

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Each tower will accommodate the following:-

First Floor : Banking level for the decking of mine cars to and from the cages on to the rail tracks in the Car Hall.

Second Floor : Fan Room floor for fans to ventilate the motor generator sets and give access to the top of the internal steel towers.

Third Floor : Motor Generator Floor for two motor generator sets to provide direct current electrical supply to the winders also two 23 feet diameter Koepe guide rope pulleys. The layout includes an electric crane for installation and maintenance of the motor generator sets.

Fourth Floor : Winder Auxiliary floor for auxiliaries, associated with Koepe winders and fans for cooling of winder motors.

Fifth Floor : Winder Room floor for the two Koepe winders having Koepe sheaves 27 feet in diameter. The layout includes separate cabins for the men operating these engines and an electric crane for installation and maintenance.

* The photograph below shows one of the winders at this pit.

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* I am always grateful when visitors to the site offer items from their personal collections for inclusion on the site.
Copyright ownership of the above winder image lies with Mark Smith to whom I am grateful for his permission to include this within this report. The winders were manufactured by Markham Engineering of Chesterfield (Derbys.)
The Author: M. Martin

The design of each tower includes the provision of road and rail access with hatchways on all floors so that material can be hoisted by crane to any of the rooms. Fully automatic electric passenger lifts in each tower will give rapid access to all floors. A cage lifting crane will be provided to facilitate installation and changing of cages.

Car Hall

This building, 930 ft. long by 60 ft. wide, will connect the two towers and extend beyond them in easterly and westerly directions. The suspended floor is from 10 to 13 ft. above the ground level, and is so arranged to provide suitable gradients for the handling of mine cars. The gradients were determined from experiments carried out at a test track. Sections of the track to be installed in the Car Hall were used, and much valuable information was obtained.

The Car Hall will house the tracks, creepers, rams and brakes to be used to conduct and control cars from both shafts to the three tipplers and return them to the shafts. A travelling crane, having a capacity of 7 tons will facilitate the handling of plant in the Central Car Hall. Hydraulically powered hoists at the east and west ends of the building will take mine cars of material to and from ground level.

Electrical Sub-Station and Fanhouse

A dual purpose building sited at the end of the bifurcated fan drift connected with No. 2 Shaft will accommodate:-

(a) Sub-Station to house all equipment for distribution of electricity with separate sections for 22 kV and 6.6 kV switchgear also a centrally situated control room for the remote operation of switchgear. Accommodation has also been included for 550 and 110 v switchgear and an automatic CO2 fire extinguishing system will cover fire extinguishing requirements which have been split into various fire risk sections. Bays for the various outdoor transformers are situated at the rear of the building and will house 5,000 kVA units for transforming the 22 kV incoming supply to 6.6 kV. Transformers of 500 kVA capacity will transform power from 6.6 kV to 550 V for surface distribution. An extensive cable basement under the switch chambers will give adequate room for neat cable installation and a cable culvert leading from there to Nos. 1 and 2 towers will accommodate all surface cables. These will include 6.6 kV shaft feeders for supply to the shaft bottoms and also feeders arranged on a ring main basis to each tower for operation of the Ward Leonard controlled winders.

(b) Fan house (details of equipment included under heading 'Ventilation'.)

Preparation Plant

The entire output will be mechanically prepared for the market. The run of mine coal will be conveyed from the two mine car tipplers to 7" primary screens; +7" after inspection will be crushed and added to the -7" raw coal and conveyed to the raw coal bunkers.

Two qualities of coal will be treated and segregation will be achieved by two raw coal bunkers each of 500 tons capacity.

From the bunkers the untreated coal will be conveyed to one of two Baum units, each having a capacity of 250 tons per hour. Recovery of fines will he done by flocculation and filtration.

Washed coal will be produced in the following sizes:-

Large 7" x 3" Separate qualities "A" and "B"

Trebles 3" x 2" do.

Doubles 2" x 1" do.

Singles 1" x ½" Common quality

Pearls ½ " x ¼ " do.

Duff ¼ " x 0 do.

Washed Smalls 1" x 0 do.

or ½" x 0 do.

Pit debris and washery discard will be conveyed to a 600 ton capacity reinforced concrete bunker. They will be taken from there by a 250 ton per hour bicable extending frame aerial ropeway to low lying ground next to the River Ore. The scheme includes provision for the loading of blaes, suitable for brickmaking, into wagons.

Sidings and Workshops

The Sidings layout has been designed to accommodate 1½ days' standage for load and empty wagons. There will be ten wagon roads leading through the coal preparation plant and alongside them will be provided a running road for locomotives, with a connection to the materials yard. The latter has been laid out so that goods delivered by main line wagons or road transport can be handled with the minimum of labour. A 30 ton capacity stationary crane will be placed convenient to rail tracks and roadway and other lifting facilities including a 5 ton mobile crane will be available. Diesel locomotives running on 3 ft. gauge tracks will be used to transport materials to the Car Hall hoists, stores, and for the transfer of plant to and from workshops.

The latter have been incorporated in the Administration Building under the Lamp Room and convenient to stores. An overhead travelling crane will facilitate the handling of plant, and offices for Engineering Officials will be arranged on a mezzanine floor. The workshops and stores have been designed having regard to the availability of Area Central Shops for these services.

Empty wagons will be propelled by British Railways into reception sidings and weighbridges will be suitably placed for the weighing of empty and loaded wagons. A complete wagon handling equipment manufactured by Messrs. Nortons-Tividale will control the movement of all wagons through the coal preparation plant. Locomotives will take loaded wagons to marshalling sidings, and connections to main lines will allow the separate despatch of east and westbound trains.

Winder Equipment

In order to provide adequate winding capacity, two Koepe winders will be installed in No. 1 Tower and one in No. 2 Tower. Accommodation in the latter is available for the installation of a fourth winder if it should ever be required.

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The four cages in No. 1 Shaft will ultimately have four decks each taking one mine car. Initially two 2-deck cages are to be installed for temporary winding from 400 fathoms to the surface. The installation at No. 2 Shaft is to be a single 2-deck cage with counterweight. The net coal load per wind in No. 1 Shaft will be 12 tons and in No. 2 Shaft 6 tons. The cage in No. 2 Shaft is being designed wider than those at No. 1 Shaft in order to facilitate transport of bulky material.

The winders in No. 1 Tower are to be driven, through single reduction gearing, by twin D.C. electric motors of 1,890 H.P. each. Supply of electricity to the motors will be from motor generator sets driven by synchronous induction motors. The No. 2 Tower winder will have duplicate mechanical parts but will, initially, be equipped with only one motor and motor generator set.

Special attention has been given to limiting the rates of acceleration and deceleration to such values that there will be an ample factor of safety against rope slip. The Koepe winder wheels are to be 27 ft. in diameter and will be fitted with friction blocks and have wide brake paths. The brakes are to be of the latest positive acting short stroke compressed air design.

The guide pulleys are to be 23 ft. diameter and will be specially designed to ensure that their inertia is reduced to a minimum. Locked coil winding ropes will be used with twin balance ropes of round construction. The latter will be fixed by swivel attachments to the underside of cages.

The distance from the highest position of the cage at the banking level to the bumper beams will be 38 feet. Tapered wooden guides (2 per cage) will be provided in this space for arresting cages in the event of their being wound beyond normal banking level; in addition, safety catches are to be installed in the internal steel tower at a suitable distance below the bumper beams. The cages will be guided in the shaft by triple roller assemblies, a special arrangement being incorporated to deflect these when cages enter the taper wooden guides.

For the installation and replacement of winding ropes a specially designed electrically driven winch, mounted on a wagon suitable for transport on main line railway, is to be used. This winch will be taken into the towers on the rail track provided and anchored by tie rods to cast steel beams secured to the walls at the base of the towers. Provision has been made for lateral movement of ropes over pulleys installed in the internal steel towers to facilitate rope changing. The winch will be driven by a 100 H.P. motor through gearing to give a rope speed of 6.4 to 9.8 ins. per second and will be equipped with double post brakes, depth indicators and speed control gear. Arrangements have been made to ensure that the wagon can be completely enclosed during transport as it is intended to use this winch at other collieries in the Scottish Division.

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Car Hall Machinery

Compressed air operated rams and swinging platforms are to be installed at banking level for the setting of mine cars. The loaded cars will gravitate to the tippler positions, where compressed air operated rams will push them into the tipplers.

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The empty cars from the tipplers will gravitate through back shunts to creepers, which will elevate them to a suitable height for return through back shunts to the shafts. The cars loaded with material will gravitate from the hoist positions to the shafts and material from the pits will be taken by a creeper to points from which cars can gravitate to hoists.

A platform elevated above the level of the mine cars and situated about 30 ft. east of No. 1 Shaft will carry two desks for banksman's signals and car decking equipment. These will be so arranged that one man can operate the controls for either winder and he will also operate the crossings, brakes and car stops for the direction of traffic from the cages to the tippler position. Another elevated platform beside the tipplers will accommodate desks with equipment for the control of mine car traffic from tipplers to the "empties" creeper. Controls will also be included for operation of conveyors leading to the two 500-ton capacity coal storage bunkers. The arrangement will also include control of stones conveyor.

A further control position will be situated near the East Car Hall hoist and the operator will control traffic from "empties" creeper to the decking position at No. 1 Shaft.

A "clear-call" communication system in the coal preparation plant will be inter-connected with the system in the Car Hall, to ensure that all operators can maintain close contact with one another with the minimum of delay.

The three tipplers will each have a capacity of approximately three mine cars per minute and two will deliver coal by conveyors to the primary screens already mentioned under the heading "Preparation Plant". The third tippler will deal with all cars of stone and special controls have been included on it to allow for cleaning, examining and servicing of mine cars. The conveyors will be installed in a basement under the Central Car Hall, which will also accommodate electrical switchgear.


No. 1 Shaft is to be used as downcast and No. 2 Shaft upcast. The air seal in the latter shaft is to be of the cage sealing type with a pot lid arrangement. The fan drift which is connected to No. 2 Shaft, has been specially designed to give the minimum resistance to air flow. It has been bifurcated at a distance of 55 ft. from the fan position so that two fans, each capable of dealing with the ventilation requirements, can be installed. Large steel air lock doors are incorporated at the point of bifurcation.

The ventilation requirements have been estimated in four stages as follows:-

Stage Quantity (Cu. Ft./Min.) Water Gauge
1 120,000 1 in.
2 200,000 2 in.
3 350,000 6.5 in.
4 475,000 11 in.

The fans are to be 160 in. diameter 3-stage torpedo type with adjustable pitch rotors. The drive for the first and intermediate stages will be by Vee belts but the final 1,050 H.P. motor will be arranged for a direct drive.

To ensure the safety of those underground, in the event of a complete failure of electrical power, a 75 H. P. diesel engine will be installed in a position to enable it to be applied to drive either of the fans through a double reduction helical gear box and chain drive. The gear box will incorporate arrangements to allow for reversal of air flow if necessary.

Equipment of the electronic type is to be installed for the measurement of the volume of air and a temperature indicating system will record the condition of all bearings. The suppliers of the fans and equipment are Messrs. Thermotank Limited, Glasgow.

A 10-ton capacity overhead travelling crane included in the Fanhouse equipment will facilitate installation and maintenance of plant.

Shafts and Underground

The shafts are 500 ft. apart, each 24 ft. in diameter and concrete lined. Walling thickness has been increased from 12" at the top to 36" at a depth of 1,600 ft. The thickness from there to 2,508 ft. has been maintained at 18" but arrangements have been included to allow water to pass through walls to garlands and so avoid the possibility of shaft lining having to withstand excessive water pressures.

The buntons, 10 in. by 6 in. rolled steel joists, are to be set at 10 ft. intervals and pockets are being formed in the shaft walls to receive them. The cage guides are to be fixed rails 100 lbs./yd. F.B. section and these will be placed centrally at the end of each cage.

Insets have been constructed in both shafts at 1,200 ft. and 1,596 ft. and No. 1 Shaft which has been extended to 2,508 ft., includes completed insets at 1,998 ft. and 2,400 ft. from the surface. These insets include the provision of wells for onsetting equipment for the loading of mine cars on to cages.

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This gear will be of the compressed air operated type and will include brakes, rams, car stops and swinging platforms, as well as shaft gates. Special pockets have been left in the shaft walling to accommodate the girders which are to form false landings under the winding positions. Provision has also been included for platforms for inspection of the balance rope loops and a mid wall arrangement will ensure that balance rope loops cannot foul the cages of the other winder.

The pit bottom layout of 1596 ft. has been revised in order to make use of the most up-to-date mine car handling equipment, and includes a main pumping station for the installation of two 1500 g.p.m. pumps capable of delivering water to the surface. It is the first horizon at which coal will be produced and the north winder on No. 1 Tower will serve that level. The other winder in No. 1 Shaft will deal with the output from the lower horizons.

The design of the pit bottom for the 2400 ft. level will include a main pumping station and lodgements.

Manpower and Productivity

Underground transport in the Main Cross Cut and lateral roadways will be by 14-ton electric storage battery locomotives pulling trains of twenty four 3-ton capacity mine cars. Coal will be brought by conveyors from faces to central loading points which will be completely equipped with mechanical car handling plant. Mechanical loading of coal at the faces will be employed and development work in stone mines will be fully mechanised.

It is estimated that 2,276 men will be employed underground and 204 on the surface for the production of the full output of 5,000 tons per day. The Area Training Programme is keeping in view the demand which will arise for man-power.

It is estimated that output per man-shift employed underground will be approximately 44 cwts. and the O.M.S. overall will be in the region of 40 cwts. per man-shift.

Programme and Progress

A detailed programme has been prepared to ensure that the various parts of the scheme progress in line with each other. This programme also covers sequences of ordering, manufacturing time, delivery and erection of all plant, and the latter is so arranged to ensure that work can be continuous as soon as buildings are completed.

Messrs. Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. who were engaged as co-ordinating engineers, are the main contractors for the winding engines and have supplied most of the other electrical equipment to be used on the surface. Messrs. Markham & Co. are the manufacturers of the mechanical parts of the Koepe Winders and are dealing with the supply of other surface mechanical equipment. The British Reinforced Concrete Engineering Co. Ltd. are employed as consultants in connection with all reinforced concrete work and are responsible for the design of the reinforcement.

The contract for sinking the shafts was placed with The Cementation Co. Ltd., Doncaster, who started work on No. 1 Shaft on 30th April, 19477 and No. 2 Shaft on 13th June, 1947. Considerable difficulties have been experienced during shaft sinking on account of the presence of large volumes of water, and at one period the growth in each shaft was 1,000 g.p.m. This water has been sealed off successfully and the growth in each shaft over the first 1,200 ft. to the inset position has been measured as 10 g.p.m. in No. 1 Shaft and 8 g.p.m. in No. 2 Shaft.

A quartz dollerite whinstone encountered at a depth of 2,270 ft. in No. 1 Shaft was found to contain water at pressures of 1,000 lbs./sq. in. Progress was retarded as extensive ground injection was required. The insets had to be formed at 2,400 ft. in this rock and as a temporary measure two pumps each having a capacity of 500 g.p.m. have been installed. The growth of water at present being dealt with in the shaft is approximately 480 g.p.m.

The depth of shafts at 1st May, 1956 was:-

No. 1 Shaft .......... 2,508 ft. No. 2 Shaft .......... 1,654 ft.

In October, 1953 the development position of the colliery was reviewed. To ensure that coal would be produced during 1957 as scheduled the sinking of No. 2 Shaft was suspended at the above depth and special loading arrangements were installed at the 266 fathom horizon. These included a tippler to allow the use of mine cars and locomotive haulage also power loading at stone mine faces. Approximately 75% of the pit bottom has been completed and a total of 2,900 yds. of roadway have been completed and the development of the Five Feet seam has been started. Coal is being cut by shortwall coal-cutter and is being loaded by Duckbill conveyors. Three diesel locomotives are being used for temporary haulage and 600 H.P. sinking winding engine is employed for winding produce and men in a specially designed aluminium hoppit.

Preparations are at present being made for the installation of shaft furnishings in No. 1 Shaft in order to make cage winding available as early as possible. It is planned that an output of 1,000 tons per day will be obtained in 1958 and that the projected output of 5,000 tons per day should be produced during 1966.

Messrs. Holland & Hannen and Cubitts (Scotland) Ltd. were responsible for the construction of the Towers and Car Hall Building and they completed the first structure within one week of the scheduled time. They also dealt with the erection of the Sub-Station and Fan House building as well as the surface section of the Fan Drift. Messrs. Mowlem (Scotland) Limited are engaged on the construction of the Administration Block which includes Lamp Cabin, Stores and Workshops, and they have been engaged by the Coppee Company (Great Britain) Ltd. for the civil engineering work connected with the Coal Preparation Plant.

Messrs. Macdonald & Partners, Glasgow, have been engaged as Consulting Engineers in connection with the extensive sidings arrangement on which work is progressing. The materials yard has been completed and earthworks for sidings are in progress. Messrs. Whatlings Limited are employed on the construction of the pithead baths, canteen and medical centre and these buildings are now at roof level.

All electrical equipment has been installed in the Sub-Station and part of it has been commissioned. Control and main cabling was completed to ensure that power and lighting were available when required in the various surface buildings. Passenger lifts have been installed in both Towers also cranes in the Winder and Motor Generator Rooms. Erection of the first two Koepe winders in No. 1 Tower is almost complete and test runs of electrical equipment have been made. The material hoist has been installed in the East Car Hall and a crane has been erected in the Central Car Hall which will facilitate the laying of rail tracks supporting steelwork, tipplers and associated equipment. The installation of the main ventilating fan and air lock doors in the Fan Drift has been almost completed.



Area of available field ------------- 10 sq. miles

Average general dip --------------- 1 in 3 to 1 in 5

Estimated total reserves ----------- 120,475,000 tons

Average thickness ----------------- 30 in.

Underground man-power --------- 2,276

Surface man-power -------------- 204

Annual output -------------------- 1,200,000 tons

Daily output ---------------------- 5,000 tons

Coal winding shifts --------------- 2


Capacity: ---------- 500 tons per hour, washing up to 7" top size.

Type: ---------- Complete mechanical preparation by two Baum units each of 250 tons per hour
capacity with flocculation plant and provision for froth flotation if necessary.

Products: ---------- Two separate qualities of large coal, trebles and doubles with common qualities
of singles, pearls, duff or washed smalls.

Sidings: ---------- Ten tracks through preparation plant plus running road.
Capacity, 1½ days full standage and 1½ days empties.

Debris Disposal: ---------- Aerial ropeway 220 tons per hour capacity.
Facilities for loading blaes for brickmaking into wagons.


Incoming pressures ---------- 22 kV, 3-phase, 50 cycle.

Working pressures ---------- 6.6 kV/550 volt, 3-phase 50 cycles.

Full working load ---------- Estimated 7,000/8,000 kVA.

High tension switchgear ---------- 250 MVA, 22 kV, solenoid operated..

Low tension switchgear ---------- 150 MVA, 6.6 kV, solenoid operated and 550 volt oil circuit breakers.

Control panels ---------- Desk type for 22 kV switchgear. Vertical panels for 6.6 kV switchgear
complete with mimic diagram.

Batteries ---------- In sub-station and each tower for switch closing and tripping, also for
emergency lighting.

Winder Supply ---------- D.C. supply to Ward-Leonard control winders, 660 volt D.C.


System of ventilation ---------- Exhaust.

Type of fans ---------- Thermotank 160 in. diameter, 3 stage, axial flow with adjustable pitch rotors.

Number of fans ---------- 2 (one running normally with other unit as 100 per cent standby).

Fan capacity (initial) ---------- 120,000 cu. ft./min. against 1 in W.G.

(final) ---------- 475,000 cu. ft./min. against 11 in W.G.

Motors (inter. duties) ---------- 50, 100, 250, 400 and 550 H.P.

(final duty) ---------- 1,050 H.P., 300 r.p.m. synchronous induction type.

Type of drive (inter.) ---------- Vee belts for all motors noted above.

(final) ---------- Direct coupled.

Emergency drive ---------- 75 H.P., 900 r.p.m., diesel engine through gear box and Renolds chain drive to fan shaft.

Fan emergency capacity ---------- 198,000 cu. ft./min. against 1.92 in W.G.

Air measurement ---------- Electronic equipment.


Shafts ---------- No. 1 downcast ---------- No. 2 upcast

Distance between shafts ---------- 500 ft.

Shaft diameters ---------- No. 1 = 24 ft. ---------- No. 2 = 24 ft.

Shaft depths ---------- No. 1 = 488 fathoms (2928 ft). and No. 2 = 488 fathoms (2928 ft).

Shape ---------- No. 1 Circular.    No. 2 Circular.

Lining ---------- No. 1 Concrete.   No. 2 Concrete.

No. of compartments ---------- No. 1 = 4 cages   No. 2 = 1 cage initially (4 if required later)

Type of guides ---------- 100 lbs./yd. F.B. rails. ---------- 100 lbs./yd. F.B. rails.

Buntons ---------- 10 in. by 6 in. R.S.J. ---------- 10 in. by 6 in. R.S.J.

Air locks ---------- No. 1 ---    No. 2 = False bottom air seals on cages and light alloy pot lid arrangement.

No. of levels ---------- 4 (266, 333, 400, 470 fathoms).

Shaft pipe columns ---------- 2 12-in. diameter bore pipes. ---------- 2 12-in. diameter bore pipes.


---------- No. 1 downcast ---------- No. 2 upcast

No. of cages ---------- 4 ---------- 1 initially (4 if required later)

No. of decks/cage:

266 fathoms ---------- 4 ---------- 2 initially (4 if required later)

470 fathoms ---------- 4 (temporary 2 deck to 400 fms.) ---------- 2 initially (4 if required later)

No. of men/deck ---------- 30 ---------- 30

No. of cars/deck ---------- 1   ---------- 1

Main cage guides ---------- Three roller type, fitted with tapered roller bearings.

Auxiliary cage guides ---------- Guide shoes at corners of cages to engage steel flats at surface and underground landings.

Overwind cage shoes ---------- Cast steel shoes to engage tapered wood arrester guides in internal steel tower and above artificial bottoms in shafts.

Weight of cages with suspension gear ------- 4 deck steel cage. 13.1 tons (empty) ------- 31.63 tons (loaded)

---------------------------------------- 2 deck steel cage. 9.65 tons (empty) ---------- 18.9 tons (loaded)

Suspension gear ---------- Single point suspension gear in Manganese steel with white metal capel.


Type of winders ---------- Tower mounted Koepe.

No. of winders ---------- 3 (4 if required later).

Height of towers ---------- 191 ft. 4 in.

Height to winder floor room ---------- 143 ft. 4 in.

Tower construction ---------- Reinforced concrete.

Type of drive ---------- 2 geared D.C. motors with Ward Leonard control.

Winder horse-power ---------- 3,780 (2 motors, 1,890 R.M.S. H.P. each).

Capacity of cage winder
(4 deck)

from 266 fathoms ---------- 468 tons/hr.

from 400 fathoms ---------- 396 tons/hr.

from 470 fathoms ---------- 372 tons/hr.

Leading Particulars of Winder
Shaft No. 1 Shaft No. 2 Shaft
Winding depth 532 yds. 940 yds. 940 yds.
Diameter of Koepe sheave 27 ft. 27 ft. 27 ft.
Diameter of guide pulley 23 ft. 23 ft. 23 ft.
Maximum rope speed 51 ft./sec. 51 ft./sec. 40 ft./sec.
Actual winding time 47 secs. 71 secs. 98.3 secs.
Decking time 45 secs. 45 secs. 23 secs.
Total winding time 92 secs. 116 secs. 121.3 secs
Max No. of winds per hour 39 31 14
No. of decks per cage 4 4 2
(Temporary 2 deck
400 fms.)
Weight of mine cars per cage 6.5 tons 6.5 tons 3.25 tons
3.25 tons
(2 deck cage)
Weight of R.O.M. coal per cage 12 tons 12 tons 6 tons
6 tons
(2 deck cage)
Construction of Winding Rope Locked coil Locked coil Locked coil
Size of winding ropes 2¼ in. 2 ½ in. 2 1/8 in.
1.15/16 in.
(2 deck 400 fms.)


Decking equipment ---------- Air operated rams and swinging platforms at banking level and all horizons.

Car Circulation Plant ---------- Mine car track, controllers, brakes, rams at tipplers, shuntbacks and inclined

Track gradients ---------- Average gradient for full cars, 1 per cent. to 1.2 per cent.

---------- Average gradient for empty cars, 1.5 per cent.

---------- Average gradient through crossings, 2 per cent.

---------- Average gradient through brakes, 3 per cent.

---------- Increased local gradients occur at entry to brakes and shuntbacks, hoists, exit
from cages, etc.

Car Circuit control ---------- Electro-pneumatically operated from control cabin situated over onsetting equipment.
Sequence of circuits inter-locked.

Tipplers ---------- Three 8 ft. diameter, 13 ft. long. Air operated start and stop gear.
Capacity, 4 cars/min.

Creepers ---------- Single roller type chain with twin drop type driving horns at 15 ft. centres.
Speed 60 ft./min.


Mine car capacity ---------- 126 cu. ft. (N.C.B. standard 3-ton car).

Mine car tare ---------- 32.5 cwts.

Mine car length of body ---------- 11 ft. 3 in.

Mine car width of body ---------- 3 ft. 9 in.

Mine car depth of body ---------- 3 ft. 1¾ in.

Mine car height above rail-level ---------- 4 ft. 6 in.

Mine car wheel gauge ---------- 2 ft. 11½ in.

Mine car rail gauge ---------- 3 ft.

Mine car wheel base ---------- 5 ft.

Mine car Coupler ---------- G.H.H. Kohlus.

Track ---------- 50 lb./yd. F.B. rails.

Average gradient of main haulageways ---------- 1 in 200 in favour of load.

Locomotives ---------- Electric Storage battery type 14 tons weight.

No. of cars/train ---------- 24.


Drum ---------- 5 ft. diameter, 6 ft. broad, 8 ft. 4 in. diameter flanges, two 6 ft. 2 in. diameter C.I. brake
paths. Speed, 1.91 r.p.m. Capacity, 3900 ft. of 2¾ in. diameter rope.

Gearing ---------- 1 double helical gear box, ratio 1/1

---------- 1 worm reduction gear box, ratio 19.33/1

---------- 1 set .3/.4 per cent. C.S. M/C spur gears, ratio 3.5/1

---------- 1 set .3/.4 per cent. C.S. M/C spur gears, ratio 4.53/1

[Total ratio 306.28/1]

Brakes ---------- Main : curved post type, Ferodo lined.
---------- Emergency : curved post dead-weight type, Thrustor controlled, on high speed shaft.

Motor ---------- 100 H.P., 585 r.p.m., 550 volts, 3-phase, 50 cycles.

Rope speed ---------- 6.4 in, per sec. (min); 9.8 in. per sec. (max).

Wagon and body ---------- Overall length, 39 ft.

---------- Wheel gauge, 4 ft. 8½ in.

---------- Bogie centres (standard 32-ton bogies), 26 ft. 6 in.

---------- Overall width, 9 ft. 3 in. over vertical handrails.

---------- Overall height above rails, 12 ft. 4 5/8 in. excluding ventilator.

---------- Weight complete, 50 tons.

Ancillary equipment ---------- Depth and speed indicators, overspeed device, telephone, heat and light fittings, electrical
control gear, storage reel and 150 amp. main plug connection.

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